It happened today – this day in history
1157: Birth of Richard the Lionheart in Oxford.
1276: John XXI, the only Portuguese Pope is elected.
1380: the great monarch of Moscow Dimitri defeats the Mongols and begins the decline of the Tatars at the battle of Kulikovo.
1504: Michelangelo’s statue of David is unveiled in Florence.
1514: The Polish / Lithuanian army defeats the Russians at the Battle of Orsha.
1545: The Earl of Hertford leads a retaliatory mission against Scotland.
1553: The town of Lichfield is founded.
1689: China and Russia sign the Treaty of Nertsjinsk.
1727: A barn fire at a puppet show in the village of Burwell, Cambs, kills 78 people, many of them children.
1761: George III marries Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1796: The French defeat Austria at the Battle of Bassano.
1831: William IV is crowned King of Great Britain.
1841: Birth of the Czech composer Antonín Dvořák.
1855: French forces successfully attack the Malakoff Line during the Crimean War and British and French troops capture Sevastopol from the Russians, thus ending the war.
1860: The “Lady Elgin” excursion steamer sinks after being struck in a storm on Lake Michigan. 300 passengers drown.
1888: The first six Football League matches are played in England. The same day, Annie Chapman becomes the second victim of Jack The Ripper in Whitechapel.
1899: The British government sends 10,000 additional troops to Natal, South Africa.
1900: Hurricane and tsunami hit Galveston, Texas, killing 6,000.
1914: HMS Oceanic, sister ship of the Titanic, sinks off Scotland. On the same day, Private Thomas Highgate became the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during the First World War. He was posthumously pardoned in 2006.
1924: Alexandra Kollontai of Russia becomes the first female ambassador.
1926: The Assembly of the League of Nations votes unanimously to admit Germany.
1930: Richard Drew creates scotch.
1941: The entire Jewish community of Meretsch, Lithuania, is exterminated.
1943: The surrender of Italy is announced by General Dwight D Eisenhower.
1944: The first V2 rockets land on London and Antwerp.
1948: The British fighter De Havilland DH108 breaks the sound barrier.
1949: Death of the German composer Richard Strauss at the age of 89.
1950: 116 miners are trapped underground after a cave in the mine at Knockshinnoch Castle in Scotland.
1952: The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway is published.
1957: Argentinian Juan Manuel Fangio confirms his fifth Formula 1 World Drivers’ Championship record, finishing second in the season ending the Italian Grand Prix at Monza. On the same day, Althea Gibson defeated Louise Brough Clapp 6-3, 6-2 to win the US Women’s National Championship.
1958: Bobby Moore makes his West Ham United debut, in a 3-2 Premier League victory over Manchester United at Upton Park.
1960: American sprinter Wilma Rudolph wins her third gold medal at the Olympic Games in Rome, anchoring the American 4x100m relay team.
1963: Lotus driver Jim Clark wins the Italian Grand Prix at Monza to win his first Formula 1 driver’s world championship.
1966: Singles table:
- Yellow Submarine / Eleanor Rigby – The Beatles
- All Or Nothing – Little Faces
- God Only Knows – The Beach Boys
- They come to take me Ha Haa – Napoleon XIV
- Too Early to Know – Roy Orbison
- Distant Drums – Jim Reeves
- The lovers of the world unite – David and Jonathan
- Mom – Dave Berry
- With a girl like you – The Troggs
- Working in a Coal Mine – Lee Dorsey
1967: Uganda abolishes traditional tribal kingdoms and becomes a republic. On the same day, British Railways ceased steam traction in the northeast.
1968: Arthur Ashe wins the first American men’s singles title of the Open era, beating Dutchman Tom Okker 14-12, 5-7, 6-3, 3-6, 6-3.
1970: Three airliners are hijacked and blown up by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
1973: Margaret Court wins her 24th and final Grand Slam singles title, beating compatriot Evonne Goolagong Cawley 7-6, 5-7, 6-2 at the US Open in Forest Hills.
1974: US President Gerald Ford pardons former President Richard Nixon of all federal crimes. On the same day, motorcycle daredevil Evil Knieval tries unsuccessfully to jump Snake River Canyon in Idaho. He comes out with minor injuries.
1975: Guinea-Bissau declares its independence from Portugal.
1977: Guitarist Jimmy McCullough and drummer Joe English leave Wings. On the same day, comedy actor Zero Mostel died at 62 of an aortic aneurysm.
1981: The comedy series “Only Fools and Horses” starring David Jason and Nicholas Lyndhurst, debuts on BBC1.
1986: President of Chile, Augusto Pinochet escapes an assault on life in a violent attack that kills five of his bodyguards.
1990: David Longhurst of York City dies playing Bootham Crescent against Lincoln City in a Fourth Division game. The 25-year-old collapsed shortly before half-time and was pronounced dead upon arrival at the local hospital.
1991: Macedonia votes for the independence of Yugoslavia.
1994: The last American, British and French troops leave West Berlin.
1998: Republican dissident group The Real IRA declares its campaign of violence over.
1999: United States Attorney General Janet Reno appoints former Senator John Danforth to head an independent inquiry into the 1993 fire at Branch Davidian Church near Waco, Texas, in response to revelations of the film “Waco: the rules of engagement”.
2000: Hauliers angry at rising fuel prices stage a protest of 100 “idling” trucks on the A1 in Tyne and Wear.
2003: German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl dies at the age of 101.
2009: Singer Peter Andre divorces glamor model Katie Price over his unreasonable behavior.
2011: Fashion designer John Galliano is convicted of anti-Semitic statements by a Paris court and fined € 6,000.
2013: Albums table:
- The 1975 – The 1975
- Reluctance Marks – Nine Inch Nails
- Roaring Twenties – Roaring Kicks
- The Impossible Dream – Richard & Adam
- Halcyon Days – Ellie Goulding
- Hotel Cabana – Naughty Boy
- Sincerely, Ariana Grande
- Hail to the King – Avenged Sevenfold
- All the little lights – Passenger
- Prequel sequel – Babyshambles
2014: Haider al-Abadi becomes Prime Minister of Iraq.
2015: Queen Elizabeth II becomes the longest-serving monarch in British history. On the same day, Wayne Rooney became England’s top scorer with a penalty against Switzerland in a 2-0 Euro qualifying win at Wembley Stadium.
2016: Jamaican singer, songwriter and producer Prince Buster dies in Miami.
2017: Country singer-songwriter Don Williams dies of emphysema at age 78.
2019: The Supreme Court of Brazil rules that a Marvel comic depicting two men kissing can be sold after the mayor of Rio de Janeiro tried to ban it.
2020: Two former Myanmar soldiers testify that they were ordered to rape and kill Rohingya Muslim villagers.
BIRTHDAYS: Michael Frayn, playwright, 88; Bernie Sanders, American politician, 80; Dame Margaret Hodge, politician, 77; John McDonnell MP, Labor politician, 70; Anne Diamond, journalist, 67 years old; Heather Thomas, actress, 64; Aimee Mann, singer-songwriter, 61; David Steele, bassist (The Beat / Fine Young Cannibals) 61; Louise Minchin, journalist, 53 years old; Chris Powell, football coach, 52; Neko Case, singer-songwriter, 51; David Arquette, actor, 50 years old; Martin Freeman, 50-year-old actor; Richard Hughes, drummer (Keane) 46; Pink (Alicia Moore), singer-songwriter, 42; Miles Jupp, comedian / actor, 42; João Moutinho, footballer, 35 years old; Wiz Khalifa (Cameron Jibril Thomaz), rapper, 34; Gylfi Sigurðsson, footballer, 32 years old; Jay Weinberg, drummer (Slipknot) 31; Joe Sugg, TV personality / vlogger, 30; Bruno Fernandes, footballer, 27 years old; Gaten Matarazzo, actor, 19 years old.